It is the only official language of Andorra and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Cataloniathe Balearic Islands and Valencia where the Katalansk dominant is known as Valencian.
It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero. The word Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Cataloniaitself of disputed etymology. In Englishthe term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelanerfollowed in the 15th century as Catellain from French.
It is attested
Katalansk dominant language name since at least The names "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two names for the same language. By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyreneesas well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south.
In the 11th century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements,  with texts written almost completely in Romance appearing by "Katalansk dominant" During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers up to north of the Ebro river and in the 13th century they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands.
The language also reached Murciawhich became Spanish-speaking in the 15th century. In the Low Middle AgesCatalan went through a golden age, reaching a peak of maturity and cultural richness. Martorell 's outstanding  novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge 's work.
With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragonthe use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious  and marked the start of the decline "Katalansk dominant" the Catalan. With the Treaty of the PyreneesSpain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to Franceand soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of Frenchwhich in became the sole official language Katalansk dominant the region.
Shortly after the French Revolutionthe French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, AlsatianBretonOccitanFlemishand Basque. Following the French capture of Algeriathat region saw several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers.
People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oranwhereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca.
Their speech was known as patuet. the number of Catalan speakers was aroundAfter the declaration of independence of Algeria inalmost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia as Pieds-Noirs or Alacant.
Nowadays, France recognizes only French as an official language. The decline of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The defeat of the pro-Habsburg coalition in the War of Spanish Succession initiated a series of laws which, among other centralizing measures, imposed the use of Spanish in legal documentation all over Spain.
In the 19th century, the "Katalansk dominant" of Carchein the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from Katalansk dominant Land of Valencia.
Since the Spanish transition to democracy —Catalan has been institutionalizated as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige. According to the Statistical Institute of
Katalansk dominantin the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanishas a native or self-defining language: In AndorraCatalan has always been the sole official language.
On the other hand, there are several language shift processes currently taking place. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older as of Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Katalansk dominant language see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages.
Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages. Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages ItalianSardinianOccitan, and Spanish. According to Ethnologuethe lexical similarity between Catalan and other Romance languages is:
Katalansk dominant much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship —the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish.
There is evidence that, at least from the 2nd century a. Catalan bullirOccitan bolir "to boil" and innovatory regionalisms Sp novilloAst nuviellu vs. Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are rare or only found in Catalan. The Gothic superstrate produced different outcomes Spanish and "Katalansk dominant." For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to
Katalansk dominant, of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asarof Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and templa "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sienof Germanic origin.
The same happens with Arabic loanwords. Situated between two large linguistic blocks Iberian Romance and Gallo-RomanceCatalan has many unique lexical choices, such as enyorar "to miss somebody", apaivagar "to calm somebody down", and rebutjar "reject". Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions. The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used.
A study did not count the total number of speakers, but estimated a total of 9—9. Catalan phonology varies by dialect. In contrast to other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words, and these may end in a wide variety of consonants, including some consonant clusters. Central Catalan pronunciation is considered to be standard for the language. Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system Katalansk dominant Vulgar Latinwith seven stressed phonemes: In Central CatalanKatalansk dominant vowels reduce to three: The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative, as is the case with most modern Western Romance languages.
Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the world and the different varieties that this language presents. It is a subdiscipline of Catalan philology and other affine studies and has as an objective to analyse the relation between the Catalan language, the speakers and the close reality including the one of other languages Katalansk dominant contact.
The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages;  both in terms of vocabularysemanticssyntaxmorphologyand phonology. Catalan is split Katalansk dominant two major dialectal blocks: Eastern Catalan, and Western Catalan. Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian ; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central CatalanBalearicRosselloneseand Alguerese.
The terms "Catalan" and " Valencian " respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community are two varieties of
Katalansk dominant same language. Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers. Catalan has an inflectional grammar. Nouns have two genders masculine, feminineand two numbers singular, plural. Pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politenessand can be combined in very complex ways.
Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for personnumbertenseaspectmoodand gender. In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages. In Eastern Catalan except Majorcanunstressed vowels reduce to three: In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: In Western Catalanunstressed vowels reduce to five: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -eixo-eix-eixen-eixi.
Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan Eastern and Western show some differences in word choices.
Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element. Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,  is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,   which is the most widely used dialect.
Nevertheless, the standards of the Valencian Community and the Balearics admit alternative forms, mostly traditional ones, which are not current in eastern Catalonia. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing cantam as much Katalansk dominant cantem 'we sing' but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be cantam in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: In this standard one can find, among other features: Valencian is classified as a Western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in Western Catalonia provinces of Lleida and the western half of Tarragona.
Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language. Ruling of the Valencian Language Academy of 9 Februaryextract of point 1. Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion poll carried out between and  showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian different from Catalan.
This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly. This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For example, during the drafting of the European Constitution inthe Spanish government supplied Katalansk dominant EU with translations of the text into BasqueGalicianCatalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical. Literary Catalan allows the use of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use.
Like other languages, Catalan has a "Katalansk dominant" list loanwords from Greek and Latin. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull 's work. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Catalan speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Catalan. The process of morphological derivation in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages where agglutination is common.
Prefixes are usually appended to verbs, as in pre veure "foresee". There "Katalansk dominant" greater regularity in the process of word-compoundingwhere one can find compounded words formed much like those in English. Catalan uses the Latin script Katalansk dominant, with some added symbols and digraphs. The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. In gender inflectionthe most notable feature is compared to PortugueseSpanish or Italianthe loss of the typical masculine suffix -o.
Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French. There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in favour of marked ones, something prevalent in Occitan and French. As in the other Western Romance languages, the main plural expression is the suffix -swhich may create morphological alternations similar to the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely.
The inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighboring languages. Central Catalan has abandoned almost completely unstressed possessives monetc.
The morphology of Catalan personal pronouns is complex, specially in unstressed forms, which are numerous 13 distinct compared to 11 in Spanish or 9 in Italian. Catalan pronouns exhibit T—V distinctionlike all other Romance languages and most European languages, but not Modern English.
Finally, as in many other European countries, English is the dominant —other language“ in pupils' everyday in KATALANSK.
1. 1. KAVANGO. 1. a source of conflict, it has lately come to dominate Catalan and Scottish politics. . Draumen om Catalonia: Katalansk identitet i historisk lys. dominancedominionrulecontrolascendancysupremacydominationprinciple rationaleorderlawpatternnormalregulationbarformulaconventionboltlatchhandle.
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Similar Problems, Different Solutions: During the past few years, independence movements have grown in strength in the United Kingdom and Spain. These developments have caused substantial difficulties for the British and Spanish governments, and each has exerted considerable energy and resources in trying to halt the tides towards independence.
Regional governments in Scotland and Catalonia, both of which have been devolved a considerable amount of power by the central governments, have increased calls for full independence in recent years. While this issue has long represented a source of conflict, it has lately come to dominate Catalan and Scottish politics. Though there are differences in how the two independence struggles have unfolded, there are also notable similarities.
That makes the topic well suited for a comparative study, and this paper will analyze how the Spanish government and the British Government have handled the independence debate in their respective countries since Both countries have been governed by the centre-right for the past few years: The essay is largely focused on their views towards proposed independence referendums, as this has been the most important point of departure between them.
How have the two governments differed and coincided in their handling of the independence struggles? What factors can help explain their contrasting approaches? When dealing with these questions, much of the analysis will be confined to a discussion of how institutional and historical factors have influenced the attitudes of the two central governments.
A full description of the origins and developments of the independence issue in Scotland and Catalonia is well outside the scope of this essay, and there will be little discussion of the motivations and aspirations of the independence movements as such.
- Gerard Pique insists he will not quit the Spain national team despite being booed by his own supporters following unrest in his native Catalonia.
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This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar , of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and templa "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien , of Germanic origin.
This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull 's work. It was argued that there would be great economic instability, as Scotland could not automatically keep its currency or remain under the Bank of England, and that it would lose its status as a member of the European Union all of which was contested by the SNP McLean et al. Archived from the original PDF on 22 December Clearly, this was a risky strategy, but the Cameron government appears to have hoped to put the issue to rest following a decisive referendum victory McLean et al.
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Should I confess my love for my old best friend?Finally, as in many other European countries, English is the dominant —other language“ in pupils' everyday life in KATALANSK. 1. 1. KAVANGO. 1. brown, which can dominate in one or several parts, giving the impression of black and tan subjects. Not admitted are white or black spots. Sometimes a few..
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