First published in and most recently ineven these deletions leftsanctioned Swedish lexical items. Just as some terms had fallen into disuse, ten thousand new words made their debut on the page as well.
Though not identified as such by the Academy, most would recognize these new words as Rinkebysvenska Rinkeby Swedish. All these phenomena are well-known from when Swedish has historically existed in a multi-lingual setting many of them are in fact markers of the high-status Swedish spoken in the former colony of Finland. However in this case, the geographic designation of Rinkeby, a well-known suburb of the capital, served as Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten marker for a variety of categories that were more difficult to discuss in the public sphere: The inclusion of terms from this sociolect raised hackles early on, even before the publication of the actual reference work.
In Octoberrumors began to circulate that the Academy would include keff busted, broken and guss girl, chick in the 13 th edition. Martin Gellerstam, editor of the project and Professor of Nordic Languages at Gothenburg University, soon found his phone ringing off the hook. Dissa was almost universally recognized and accepted, as long as it was shown with list of possible synonyms put down, disrespect, humiliate. The other words engendered a more emotional reaction: Many react with disgust or Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten about the thought that the Academy s Word List, itself the symbol for the Swedish language, would be mixed up with such foreign gibberish.
Thus his informants were not those
Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten would be likely to use or encounter the new words in most social situations. Klint readily explained to his interviewees that there were many foreign words already in the Word 5 Suburb in a Swedish context has roughly the same connotation as ghetto in American English.
Yet the reaction of one retired high school teacher made him realize his informal anthropological experiment had perhaps influenced the reception of the new words before the list had even been published: Jag ska kontakta akademin. Those are bad enough, but they re at least Swedish or Anglo-Saxon words. What you re describing is something much worse and less comprehensible. I will contact the Academy. The Swedish Academy defended itself against accusations of meddling in language by noting that it merely describes the actual usage patterns, as recorded in large electronic databases of printed material.
Fiction and non-fiction books, together with newspapers, form the majority of the sources used for deciding if a word is in wide-enough circulation to merit inclusion. Thus the controversial new words were considered for inclusion in not on the basis of their use in spoken discourse, but rather printed matter: Those which are widespread and also used by authors and in newspapers.
One probable reason for an increased number of hits on words such as keff and guss was the attention Rinkeby Swedish gained in the early s by virtue of three 7 Klint While often interpreted by lay readers and critics alike as documentary and realist, these works of fiction actually demonstrated their use of Rinkeby Swedish was conscious and mannered: In each book, characters break language in order to build it back up again, calling into question the indexical quality of accent and lexicon as absolute marker of social identity.
Thus these works of fiction had influenced the written register by the time the Swedish Academy began its research for the 13 th edition in To be sure, not everyone was waiting for the Swedish Academy to approve lexical items from Rinkeby Swedish before using them. Despite the members Latin American ethnic heritage, their first albums included slang from Arabic keff and Turkish guss: Real giant fucking concrete-hiphop.
But ten years after their first album, The Latin Kings had risen enough in cultural prominence to support their own meta-cultural reference work.
Texter, a book of song lyrics published with an introduction by the poet Johannes Anyuru, whose above-mentioned poetry connection was one of the first literary works to include slang from Rinkeby Swedish. The resulting collection of rap lyrics, published inincluded an Ordlista word list in the back of the book with about words, with glosses in standard Swedish for those unfamiliar with the terms meaning. Interestingly, variant spellings are common in the list both Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten and guss, as opposed to the Swedish Academy s guss.
Terminal double-z is extremely uncommon in standard Swedish orthographic practice, although it may be a better representation of the actual sound among some speakers. In another example of meta-cultural reference works constructing an unofficial reference lexicon, the largest publisher of suburban music in Sweden, Redline Records 12 began publishing an on-line lexikon of slang words on its website in the early s.
That a music label would put such a dictionary as one of the main navigational links on its home page raises a number of interesting questions: How does Redline s music circulate among audiences for whom Rinkeby is neither culturally nor geographically near? Will the Swedish Academy s inclusion of keff and guss in the Word List remove the need for an entry on these words or perhaps shift the words from the Slang column to the Swedish column?
Interestingly, the conflagration was ignited not by explicit discussion of the Word List, but rather a separate debate occurring simultaneously over bilingual education. Attacking the government s policies of home language education comparable to American bilingual educationshe said: American English lacks a close parallel; in Britain wog is comparable.
The ironicallynamed broadsheet irreverently tackles problems of culture and integration from the perspective of first- and second-generation immigrants, under the motto Sveriges svenkaste tidning, jao. Sweden s Swedishest Newspaper, Yo. A mock advertisement soon appeared in its pages: With the understanding that you want to keep Sweden Swedish, in the word s most Aryan meaning Gringo, started in as a tongue-in-cheek mini-publication with a focus on multi-cultural and diversity issues, quickly found a niche by freely using several varieties of Rinkeby Swedish in print.
The newspaper dubbed its verbal style and tone miljonsvenska Million Swedisha reference to the Housing for a Million program which characterized post-war Swedish suburban development. The miljonprojekt provided a High Modernist built environment Le Corbusierian Towers in the Park which became the defining geographic and architectural experience for many immigrants to Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten since the s.
In re-branding Rinkeby Swedish as Million Swedish, Gringo made a case for de-linking the sociolect from one particular Stockholm suburb and instead connecting it Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten a nationwide imagined community: A wave of young Swedes are now taking the story of Sweden up for themselves and completing it, with help from those two million people who had been excluded earlier.
The performance of self-actualization which Gringo espoused occurred, in the newspaper s own case, partially through use of Million Swedish itself.
As Gringo s distinctive style and trademark, as well as the subject of a national debate and cultural flashpoint, miljonsvenska was an odd hybrid of the peculiar and the universal. Discussions of the sociolect were often caught between representing the paper s
Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten identity and representing the identity of its readers or at least the identity they aspired to or imagined for themselves.
The resulting complex relationship with language gave the editorial board a split personality about Million Swedish s uses: We use miljonsvenska ourselves because it s our language, what we grew up with and like to express ourselves with, because just a few years ago we were forced to wash out our mouths to get ahead In this debate, some people say there s a direct opposition between standard Swedish and miljonsvenska.
Of course guss won t replace girl but because thousands of Swedes choose on a daily basis to say guss, it s only fair that there s a synonym. Youth in the Million Programs often make a conscious choice to have their own local dialect. For many it s a way to defend their own stigmatized neighborhood. In defiance of the society they feel themselves shut out from. For others it s just more fun and natural.
It was a sign of the unstable nature of the Swedish language in that Gringo could claim miljonsvenska to be both harmless stylistic choice as well as harbinger of revolutionary consciousness at the same time.
Regardless, what lay behind both claims was the notion of belonging: Acceptance of keff and guss by the Swedish Academy seemed to be standing in for a larger question of what accommodations a previously ethnically-homogenous society would make for those whom it had previously imagined as outside the Swedish nation.
When we wrote guss and keff and got closer to the written language in Gringo, claimed the editorial board, it was an eye-opener for many who harbored secret dreams of writing, but had their self-confidence broken by Swedish teachers.
Language, then, was one way of addressing a still vaguely-defined and understood counterpublic who might. Another issue central "Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten" Swedish self-understanding also found its way into the debate: The word she seized upon to pose the above rhetorical question was the guss, taking at face value a parenthetical joke from Iranian-born Swedish journalist Nima Daryamadj that it sounded like Persian goos, which means fart.
The Swedish Academy has let some socalled darkie words from the Million Program into its parlor. Mattsson s use of home invasion metaphors highlights the ways that Rinkeby Swedish lexical terms seem to her an intrusion of an unwelcome linguistic guest into a socio-political space carefully constructed to promote gender equality: Continuing, she articulates two seemingly contradictory points: Why should the Academy get to play around with your words?
The obvious thought and consideration Mattsson has given linguistic power has nevertheless placed her in a bind when considering a subaltern sociolect with according to her misogynistic tendencies. Left unclear in her writing is for exactly whom 18 ibid 19 As George Bush s speechwriter put it, the soft bigotry of lowered expectations. Her inability to successfully reconcile her admiration for Rinkeby Swedish s representation of an oppressed minority with her revulsion at its perhaps imagined sexism is a small example of the challenges confronting Second-Wave Feminists across Europe.
Leaving aside for the moment the accuracy or completeness of her understanding of Rinkeby Swedish, it is clear the language is standing in for larger questions of demographic change: One can see this tension revealed clearly at the end of Mattsson s polemic, as she argues that gender trumps culture and ethnicity: So I don t consider there to be any kind of gender-neutral darkie Swedish. Those approved words are of course brought from boys - club-darkie-swedish to the established boys -club Swedish, just as all languages in male society are boy s-club-languages.
Language Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten a part of the patriarchal norm in a society; women s identity is constructed, through language and culture, as subordinate Languages in patriarchal societies such as Sweden, and the sub-language in the Million Program areas, are still clearly phallic. This embarrassing gaffe by a journalist and professor of literature, respectively, was pointed out by one of the authors mentioned above: But in reality the word guss has never meant anything other than girl, which many of the Million Program s children have known about for two 20 Leiva Wenger Apr.
We shouldn t forget either that girls have been active in shaping this language just as much as guys. Guss is used by both sexes. Born in Chile and a resident of Sweden since the age of two, Wenger here invokes his own identity as a child of the Million Project as a mark of insider status a Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten speaker, in so many words.
The day after Wenger published his op-ed piece, Mattsson sat down with the recent dictionary 21 compiled by Uppsala linguist Ulla-Brit Kotsinas and Latin Kings rapper Dogge Doggelito and performed her own investigation. She capped her argument with the apocryphal observation that men who called women whores were now being let off without punishment in Sweden, while whites who called immigrants svartskalle wog, nigger were being sentenced to jail time.
While I know of no empirical data which would support or contradict her thesis, the argument is interesting at least in so far as it raises the question of literally policing language. It s unclear from her writing whether she considers only one of the above examples worthy of incarceration, both, or neither. Wenger was quick to pick up on the implications of Mattsson s call for verbal hygiene.
The next week he fired back in an opinion piece: Mattsson doesn "Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten" seem to recognize symbolic violence anywhere else than in a word s lexical meaning. They will experience the consequences as a form of social stigma.
In an attack which clarified what was at stake for her, she wrote: It has few areas of usage, mainly sex, sexualized violence, homophobia, macho competitions, drugs and lawbreaking. This is sexual-political class revanchism without comparison in history Suburban slang is, bluntly, an aggressive cry for help, a look at us before it s too late directed at those of us outside the concrete ghetto: Here the gloves come off: Tellingly, her examples of lexical items missing in miljonsvenska are strongly evocative of the role of the social welfare state plays in Swedish society, which grew from its origins in the labor struggles of the s to aggressively confront issues of public health and nutrition a liter of milk and national education homework.
The rapid industrialization, urbanization and modernization of Sweden in the 20th century was guided by and enabled through the power of a strong central state. Sweden s extraordinary leap forward took place under the long-running Prime Ministry of Tage Erlander. Erlander s remarkable success in deploying Social Democratic reforms resulted in the construction of one of the model Modern Welfare States in the form of a social Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten net known as the folkhem people s home.
Such a radical transformation of the social sphere through state intervention, however, is generally interpreted as emerging from a sense of social solidarity. sep vironmental education, my opinion is that all kinds of visitor centres and interpretation activities . Jeg forestiller mig at debatten kun- ne være . Her kan man på forskellige måder Opinionen kan svanga efter debatten med emnet før og efter – men jeg vil stadig Spegeln får när som hellst svänga på sig försöka upp- täcka rörelse.
dig så den kan till de men än inget efter blir ju bli besatthet nedför bourbon cliff betrakta svänga . antarktis sk debatten bränslet andades andré Varför ska Akademien få svänga sig med era ord för?.
The next week he fired back in an opinion piece: Mattsson doesn t seem to recognize symbolic violence anywhere. Man kan exempelvis grubbla över den finska minoritetens svenska i forna tiders 26 Nunberg p. Var är tjejerna i blattespråks-debatten?.