The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 30, people, Gibraltar tar plats i uefa Gibraltarians. The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in It remains strategically important, with half the world's seaborne trade passing through the strait.
The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50, years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40, years ago to about 5, years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave.
During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the as a place of religious and symbolic importance. The Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around BC, apparently using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpea name perhaps of Phoenician origin.
There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period. After the collapse of the Western Roman EmpireGibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandalswho crossed into Africa at the invitation of Bonifacethe Count or commander of the territory.
The area later formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for almost years, from until AD. Following a raid ina predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar though most likely not in the bay or at
Gibraltar tar plats i uefa Rock itself. Inthe Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min Gibraltar tar plats i uefa that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built.
It received the name of Medinat al-Fath City of the Victory. From onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada in andthe Marinids of Morocco in and and the kings of Castile in The occupation of the town by Alliance forces caused the exodus of the population to the surrounding area of the Campo de Gibraltar. As the Alliance's campaign faltered, the Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated and ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war.
Unsuccessful attempts Gibraltar tar plats i uefa Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of and again with the Gibraltar tar plats i uefa Siege of Gibraltar toduring the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar 21 October and during the Crimean War of —56, because of its strategic location.
In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1, to a maximum of 5, The first half of the 19th Gibraltar tar plats i uefa saw a significant increase of population to more than 17, inas people from Britain and all around the Mediterranean Italian, Portuguese, Maltese, Jewish and French took up residence in the town.
Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canalas it lay on the sea route between the UK and the British Empire east of Suez.
In the later 19th century, there were major investments in improving the fortifications and the port. The Rock was strengthened as a fortress. On July 18,the Vichy French air force attacked Gibraltar in retaliation for the British bombing of the Vichy navy. The naval base and the ships based there played a key role in the provisioning and supply of the island of Malta during "Gibraltar tar plats i uefa" long siege. As well as frequent short runs known as 'Club Runs' towards Malta to fly off aircraft reinforcements initially Hurricanes but later, notably from the USN aircraft carrier WaspSpitfiresthe critical Operation Pedestal convoy was run from Gibraltar in August This resupplied the island at a critical time in the face of concentrated air attacks from German and Italian forces.
In the s, Franco renewed Spain's claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar and restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain. Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain under British sovereignty in the Gibraltar sovereignty referendum,which led to the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order in In response, Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links. A process of tripartite negotiations started in between Spain, Gibraltar and the UK, ending some restrictions and dealing with disputes in some specific areas such as air movements, customs procedures, telecommunications, pensions and cultural "Gibraltar tar plats i uefa." Under its current constitutionGibraltar has almost complete internal self-governance through a parliament    elected for a term of up to four years.
The unicameral parliament presently consists of 17 elected members, and the Speaker who is not elected, but appointed by a resolution of the parliament. The governor enacts day-to-day matters on the advice of the Gibraltar Parliament, but is responsible to the British government in respect of defence, foreign policy, internal security and general good governance.
Judicial and other appointments are made on behalf of the monarch in consultation with the head of the elected government. The PDP was a new party, formed in and fielded candidates in the election, but none were elected.
All local political parties oppose any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination. The main UK opposition parties also support this policy, and it is British government policy not to engage in talks about the sovereignty of Gibraltar without the consent of the people of Gibraltar. Gibraltar is part of the European Unionhaving joined through the European Communities Act UKwhich gave effect to the Treaty of Accessionas a dependent territory of the United Kingdom under what was then article 4 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community covering special member state territorieswith exemption from some areas such as the European Union Customs UnionCommon Agricultural Policy and the Schengen Area.
After a year campaign for the right to vote in European electionssince the people of Gibraltar have participated in elections for the European Parliament as part of the South West England constituency. Gibraltar was nominated to be included on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories by the United Kingdom when the list was created in  and has been listed ever since.
Gibraltar is not a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right and is represented by the United Kingdom but was granted Associate Membership of Commonwealth Foundation in Gibraltar has competed in the Commonwealth Games since Gibraltar's territory covers 6.
The shoreline measures 12 kilometres 7.
There are two coasts "Sides" of Gibraltar: Gibraltar has no administrative divisions but is divided into seven Major Residential Areas. Fresh water from the boreholes is supplemented by two desalination plants: It contains many tunnelled roads, most of which are still operated by the military and closed to Gibraltar tar plats i uefa general public. As is the case for nearby Algeciras and Tarifasummers are significantly cooler and annual temperature more constant than other cities on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula because of its position on the Strait of Gibraltar.
Rain mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. In the coldest month, January, the high temperature averages Over different species of flowering plants grow on the Rock.
Gibraltar is the only place in Europe where the Gibraltar candytuft Iberis gibraltarica is found growing in the wild; the plant is otherwise native to North Africa. It is the symbol of the Upper Rock nature reserve. Olive and pine trees are among the most common of those growing around the Rock. Most of the Rock's upper area is covered by a nature reserve which is home to around Barbary macaquesthe famous "apes" of Gibraltar, which are actually monkeys.
These are the only wild apes or monkeys found in Europe. Three-quarters of the world population live in the Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco.
Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before its capture by the Britishhaving possibly been introduced during the Islamic period.
A superstition analogous to that of the ravens at the Tower of London states that if the apes ever leave, so will the British. InBritish Prime Minister Winston Churchillwas so concerned about the Gibraltar tar plats i uefa population of apes that he sent a message to the Colonial Secretary requesting that something be done about the situation. Other mammals found in Gibraltar include rabbits, foxes and bats. Dolphins and whales are frequently seen in the Bay of Gibraltar.
Migrating birds are very common and Gibraltar is home to the only Barbary partridges found on the European continent. InGraham Watson, Gibraltar's MEPhighlighted conservationists ' fears that urban developmenttourism and invasive plant species were threatening Gibraltar's own plants as well as birds and bat species.
In May a report by the World Health Organization showed that Gibraltar had the worst air quality in any British territory. The report concentrated on PM10 and PM2. The British military traditionally dominated Gibraltar's economywith the naval dockyard providing the bulk economic activity.
This, however, has over the last 20 years, and is estimated to account for only 7 percent of the local economy, compared to over 60 percent in Today, Gibraltar's economy is dominated by four main sectors: In the early s, many bookmakers and online gaming operators moved to Gibraltar to benefit from operating in a regulated jurisdiction with a favourable corporate tax regime. This corporate tax regime for non-resident controlled companies was phased out by January and replaced by a still favourable fixed corporate tax rate of 10 percent.
Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular port for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain. The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain.
Gibraltar tar plats i uefa is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free, but may be subject to Gibraltar taxes.
Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger
Gibraltar tar plats i uefa Sunglass Hut are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango. A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Jyske Bank claims to be the oldest bank in the country, based on Jyske's acquisition in of Banco Gallianowhich began operations in Gibraltar in InGibraltar enacted the Companies Taxation and Concessions Ordinance now an Actwhich provided for special tax treatment for international business.
Gibraltar has several attractive attributes as a financial centreincluding a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services.
The Financial Services Commission FSC which was established by an ordinance in now an Act that took effect inregulates the finance sector. As of [update]Gibraltar has 0. The currency of Gibraltar is the Gibraltar poundissued by the Government of Gibraltar under the terms of the Currency Notes Act.
These banknotes are legal tender in Gibraltar alongside Bank of England banknotes. Unofficially, most retail outlets in Gibraltar accept the eurothough some payphones and the Royal Gibraltar Post Officealong with all other government offices, do not. The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation ; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately "Gibraltar tar plats i uefa" tenth of the territory's total area.
The demographics of Gibraltar reflect the many European and other economic migrants who came to the Rock over years, after almost all of the Spanish population left in Origin of surnames in the electoral roll by percentage is: The official language of Gibraltar is English, and is used by the government and in schools. Most locals are bilingualalso speaking Spanish. However, because of the varied mix of ethnic groups which reside there, other languages are also spoken on the Rock.
Berber and Arabic are spoken by the Moroccan community, as are Hindi and Sindhi by the Indian community.
Maltese is spoken by some families of Maltese descent. Llanito also often involves code-switching to English and Spanish.
Gibraltarians often call themselves Llanitos. Spain may have protested against the Gibraltar national football team's
Gibraltar tar plats i uefa to Uefa this year, yet we might recall that a very different footballing tradition.
Gibraltar has won a major battle in its fight for Fifa membership with sport's highest tribunal ordering football's governing body to reconsider the. Business (General) · Administrative and Support Services · Advertising · Consulting Services · Customer Service/Call Centre · Graduate · Human Resources/.