Sommarlovsprogrammen hade 40—45 avsnitt t. UNIX programming — using the editor, programming the shell, programming in C, other languages and tools. An annotated UNIX bibliography.
It is hard, however, for the beginner to know where to start, and how to make the best use of the facilities available. The purpose of this introduction is to help new users get used to the main ideas of the UNIX system and start making effective use of it quickly. You should have a couple of other documents with you for easy reference as you read this one. The other useful document is A Tutorial Introduction to the UNIX Text Editor, which will tell you how to use the editor to get text — programs, data, documents — into the computer.
A word of warning: Of course details also change with time. So although the basic structure of UNIX and how to use it is common to all versions, there will certainly be a few things which are different on your system from what is described here.
We have tried to minimize the problem, but be aware of it. How to log in, how to type, what to do about mistakes in typing, how to log out. Some of this is dependent on which system you log into phone numbers, for example and what terminal you use, so this section must necessarily be supplemented by local information.
Things you need every day Med hartorken som rymdvapen use the system effectively: Preparing manuscripts is one of the most common uses for UNIX systems. This section contains Med hartorken som rymdvapen, but "Med hartorken som rymdvapen" extensive instructions on any of the formatting tools. UNIX is an excellent system for developing programs.
This section talks about some of the tools, but again is not a tutorial in any of the programming languages provided by the system. An annotated bibliography of documents that new users should be aware of.
You also need to know the phone number, unless your system uses permanently connected terminals. The UNIX system is capable of dealing with a wide variety of terminals: UNIX is strongly oriented towards devices with lower case. If your terminal produces only upper case e.
Be sure to set the switches appropriately on your device. If it types garbage, you may be at the wrong speed; check the switches.
If that fails to produce a login message, consult a guru. When you get a login: If a password is required, you will be asked for it, and if possible printing will be turned off while you type it.
You should get back something like Mon Jan 16 Another command you might try is who, which tells you everyone who is currently logged in: If you make a mistake typing the command name, and refer to a non-existent command, you will be told. For example, if you type whom you will be told whom: Strange Terminal Behavior Sometimes you can get into a state where your terminal Med hartorken som rymdvapen strangely.
Or you can read the description of the command stty in section I of the manual. If your terminal does have computer-settable tabs, the command tabs will set the stops correctly for you.
The sharp-character erases the last character typed; in fact successive uses of erase characters back to the beginning of the line but not beyond. So if you type badly, you can correct as you go: What if you must enter a sharp or at-sign as part of the text? The system will always echo a newline at you after your at-sign, even if preceded by a backslash.
The backslash is used extensively in UNIX to indicate that the following character is in some way special. Read-ahead UNIX has full read-ahead, which means that "Med hartorken som rymdvapen" can type as fast as you want, whenever you want, even when some command is typing Med hartorken som rymdvapen you.
If you type during output, your input characters will appear intermixed with the output characters, but they will be stored away and interpreted in the correct order. In a few programs, like the text editor, DEL stops whatever the program is doing but leaves you in that program.
Hanging up the phone will stop most programs.
Logging Out The easiest way to log out is to hang up the phone. Med hartorken som rymdvapen can also type login and let someone else use the terminal you were on.
Mail When you log in, you may sometimes get the Med hartorken som rymdvapen You have mail. UNIX provides a postal system so you can communicate with other users of the system. After each message, mail waits for you to say what to do with it. The two basic responses are d, which deletes the message, and RETURN, which does not so it will still be there the next time you read your mailbox. Other responses beginners https: Earlier versions of mail do not process one message at a time, but are otherwise similar.
How do you send mail to someone else? The easiest way is this: For practice, send mail to yourself. There are other ways to send mail — you can send a previously prepared letter, and you can mail to a number of people all at once.
For more details see mail 1. Writing to other users At some point, out of the blue will come a message like Message from joe tty07… accompanied by a startling beep. To respond, type the command write joe This establishes a two-way communication path.
Now whatever Joe types on his terminal will appear on yours and vice versa. The path is slow, rather like talking to the moon.
If you are in the middle of something, you have to get to a state where you can type a command. Normally, whatever program you are running has to terminate or be terminated. A protocol is needed to keep what you type from getting garbled up with what Joe types.
Joe types write smith and waits. Smith types write joe and waits. Joe now types his message as many lines as he likes.
Now Smith types a reply, also terminated by o. This is also useful for getting the most up-to-date information on a command. Thus to read up on the who command, type man who and, of course, man man tells all about the man command.
Try typing the command learn If learn Med hartorken som rymdvapen on your system, it will tell you what to do from there. At this point you can do various editing operations on the text you typed in, such as correcting spelling mistakes, rearranging paragraphs and the like.
Until the w command, nothing is stored permanently, so if you hang up and go home the information is lost. If you try to quit without writing, ed will print a? A second q gets you out regardless. The names are sorted into alphabetical order automatically, but other variations are possible.
The 41 and 78 are the number of characters which should agree with the numbers you Med hartorken som rymdvapen from ed. Options can be combined: More details can be found in ls 1. The use of optional arguments that begin with Med hartorken som rymdvapen minus sign, like -t and -lt, is a common convention for UNIX programs.
It is also vital that you separate the various arguments with spaces: There are a host of programs that do that, probably more than are needed.
One simple thing is to use
Med hartorken som rymdvapen editor, since printing is often done just before making changes anyway. After you learn how to use the editor, you can be selective about the parts you print. So here are a couple of alternatives. First is cat, the simplest of all the printing programs. Thus, pr junk temp will print junk neatly, then skip to the top of a new page and print temp neatly. The true formatters are nroff and troff, which we will get to in the section on document preparation.
Look in your manual under opr and lpr. Which to use depends on what equipment is attached to your machine. There is no prompting or chatter, and error messages are occasionally curt. We have already seen, for example, that in the ls command, ls -t means to list in time order.
Besides the minus sign, there are other characters which have special meaning. On to some more positive suggestions. Logically this divides into many small pieces, like chapters and perhaps sections. There are advantages a systematic naming convention which are not obvious to the novice UNIX user.
What if you wanted to print the whole book?
You could say pr chap1. Fortunately, there is a shortcut. Filmen börjar med att Kenny Starfighter (Johan Rheborg), som gått om på Galaxhjälteakademin flera år, ska göra sitt ”Med hårtorken som rymdvapen”.
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Help! Does she like me? I hope not!Filmen börjar med att Kenny Starfighter (Johan Rheborg), som gått om på Galaxhjälteakademin flera år, ska göra sitt ”Med hårtorken som rymdvapen”..
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