Norgaofficially the Kingdom of Norwayis a Nordic country in Northwestern Europe whose core territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula ; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side.
Erna Solberg became prime minister in and was reelected in September Erna Solberg replaced Jens Stoltenberg who was the prime minister between and and — A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchyNorway divides state power between the Parliamentthe cabinet and the Supreme Courtas determined by the Constitution.
The kingdom was established as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms. By Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 traditional count fromthe kingdom has existed continuously for 1, years, and the list of Norwegian monarchs includes over sixty kings and earls.
From toNorway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norwayand from toit was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the first World War.
Norway remained neutral until April when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of World War II. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: Norway maintains close ties with both the European Union and the United States. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, and its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product GDP. Norway has two official names: There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway originally had the same etymology as the English form.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would then have been due to later folk etymology. This resurrected theory has received some pushback by other scholars on various grounds, e. In a Latin manuscript ofthe name Northuagia is mentioned, while a French chronicle of c. He also said that beyond the wide wilderness in Norway's southern part was the land of the Swedes, "Svealand". The adjective Norwegianrecorded from c.
After Norway had become Christian, Noregr and Noregi had become the most common forms, but during the 15th century, the newer forms Noreg h and Norg h efound in medieval Icelandic manuscripts, took over and have survived until the modern day. The first inhabitants were the Ahrensburg culture 11th to 10th millennia BCwhich was a late Upper Paleolithic culture during the Younger Dryas, the last period of cold at the end of the Weichselian glaciation.
The oldest finds are stone tools dating from 9, to 6, BC, discovered in Finnmark Komsa culture in the north and Rogaland Fosna culture in the south-west. More recent finds along the entire coast revealed to archaeologists that the difference between the two can simply be ascribed to different types of tools and not to different cultures. Coastal fauna provided a means of livelihood for fishermen and hunters, Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 may have made their way along the southern coast about 10, BC when the interior was still covered with ice.
It is now thought that these so-called "Arctic" peoples came from the south and followed the coast northward considerably later. In the southern part of the country are dwelling sites dating from about 5, BC. Finds from these sites give a clearer idea of the life of the hunting and fishing peoples. The implements vary in shape and mostly are made of different kinds of stone; those of later periods are more skilfully made. They represent game such as deerreindeerelkbears, birds, sealswhales, and fish especially salmon and halibutall of which were vital to the way of life of the coastal peoples.
The rock carvings at Alta in Finnmark, the largest in Scandinavia, were made at sea level from 4, to BC and mark the progression of the land as the sea rose after the last Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 age ended. They were Indo-European farmers who grew grain and kept cows and sheep. The hunting-fishing population of the west coast was also gradually replaced by farmers, though hunting and fishing remained useful secondary means of livelihood.
From about BC, bronze was gradually introduced, but the use of stone implements continued; Norway had few riches to barter for bronze goods, and the few finds consist mostly of elaborate weapons Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 brooches that only chieftains could afford.
Huge burial cairns built close to the sea as far north as Harstad and also inland in the south are characteristic of this period. The motifs of the rock carvings differ from those typical of the Stone Age.
Representations of the Sun, animals, trees, weapons, ships, and people are all strongly stylised. Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial known as stone shipssuggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large.
The depicted ships most likely represent sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat. Little has been found dating from the early Iron Age the last years BC.
The dead were cremated, and their graves contain few burial goods. About 70 Roman bronze cauldrons, often used as burial urns, have been found. Contact with the civilised countries farther south brought a knowledge of runes ; the oldest known Norwegian runic inscription dates from the 3rd century.
At this time, the amount of settled area in the country increased, a development that can be traced by coordinated studies of topographyarchaeologyand place-names. The destruction of the Western Roman Empire by the Germanic peoples in the 5th century is characterised by rich finds, including tribal chiefs ' graves containing magnificent weapons and gold objects. These houses were family homesteads where several generations lived together, with people and cattle under one roof. These states were based on either clans or tribes e.
By the 9th century, each of these small states had things local or regional assemblies for negotiating and settling disputes. The regional things united to form even larger units: In this way, the lagting assemblies for negotiations and lawmaking developed. The Gulating had its meeting place by Sognefjord and may have been the centre of an aristocratic confederation [ citation needed ] along the western fjords and islands called the Gulatingslag. The Frostating was the assembly for the leaders in the Trondheimsfjord area; the Earls of Ladenear Trondheimseem to have enlarged the Frostatingslag by adding the coastland from Romsdalsfjord to Lofoten.
From the 8th to the 10th century, the wider Scandinavian region was the source of Vikings. The looting of the monastery at Lindisfarne in Northeast England in by Norse people has long been regarded as the event which marked the beginning of the Viking Age.
They colonisedraided, and traded in all parts of Europe. Norwegian Viking explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century when heading Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 the Faroe Islandsand eventually came across Vinlandknown today as Newfoundlandin Canada.
According to tradition, Harald Fairhair unified them into one in after the Battle of Hafrsfjord in Stavangerthus becoming the first king of a united Norway. Fairhair ruled with a strong hand and according to the sagas, many Norwegians left the country to live in Iceland, the Faroe IslandsGreenlandand parts of Britain and Ireland.
Norse traditions were slowly Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 by Christian ones in the late 10th and early 11th centuries. One of the most important sources for the history of the 11th century Vikings is the treaty between the Icelanders and Olaf Haraldsson, king of Norway circa to Haakon the Good was Norway's first Christian king, in the midth century, though his attempt to introduce the religion was rejected.
Born sometime in between —, Olav Tryggvasson set off raiding in England with ships.
He attacked London during this raiding. Arriving back in Norway inOlav landed in Moster. There he built a church which became the first Christian church ever built in Norway.
Feudalism never really developed in Norway or Sweden, as it did in the rest of Europe. However, the administration of government took on a very conservative feudal character. The Hanseatic League forced the royalty to cede to them greater and greater concessions over foreign trade and the economy. The League had this over the royalty because of the loans the Hansa had made to the royalty and the large debt the kings were carrying.
The League's monopolistic control over the economy of Norway put pressure on all classes, Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 the peasantry, to the degree that no real burgher class existed in Norway.
From the s tothe country was at peace. For periods there could be peace, before a lesser son allied himself with a chieftain and started a new conflict. The Archdiocese of Nidaros was created in and attempted to control the appointment of kings. From tothe population increased fromto , resulting both in more land being cleared and the subdivision of farms.
While in the Viking Age all farmers owned their own land, byseventy percent of the land was owned by the king, the church, or the aristocracy. This was a gradual process which took place because of farmers borrowing money in poor times and not being able to repay.
However, tenants always remained free men and the large distances and often scattered ownership meant that they enjoyed much more freedom than continental serfs. In the 13th century, about twenty percent of a farmer's yield went to the king, church and landowners. The 14th century is described as Norway's Golden Agewith peace and increase in trade, especially with the British Islands, although Germany became increasingly important towards the end of the century.
Throughout the High Middle Agesthe king established Norway as a sovereign state with a central administration and local representatives. Inthe Black Death spread to Norway and had within a year killed a third of the population. Later plagues reduced the population to half the starting point by Many communities were entirely wiped out, resulting in an abundance of land, allowing farmers to switch to more animal husbandry.
The reduction in taxes weakened the king's position,  and many aristocrats lost the basis for their surplus, reducing some to mere farmers. High tithes to church made it increasingly powerful and the archbishop became a member of the Council of State. The Hanseatic League took
Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 over Norwegian trade during the 14th century and established a trading center in Bergen.
InOlaf Haakonsson inherited both the Norwegian and Danish thrones, creating a union between the two countries. She waged war against the Germans, resulting in a trade blockade and higher taxation on Norwegian goods, which resulted in a rebellion.
However, the Norwegian Council of State was too weak to pull out of the union. Margaret pursued a centralising policy which inevitably favoured Denmark, because it had a greater population than Norway and Sweden combined.
The Hanseatic merchants formed a state within a state in Bergen for generations. Norway slipped ever more to the background under the Oldenburg
Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 established There was one revolt under Knut Alvsson in Norway took no part in the events which led to Swedish independence from Denmark in the s.
At the same time, a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful, and both the kings of Sweden and of Denmark were elected to the throne by their respective nobles, Thus, with his election to the throne of Sweden, both Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus VII. Although the death rate was comparable with the rest of Europe, economic recovery took much longer because of the small, scattered population. Venus Jorden runt norge 1998 12 31 mange ganger så mange vulkaner som jorden, og rundt Under Sovjetunionens Venera-program oppdaget Venera 11 og Venera 12 en .
Magellan tok bilder av over 98 % av overflaten med radar, og kartla 95 % av. Venera 8 – mars – sonde; Kosmos – mars – forsøkt sonde.
Lene Marlin debuterade i oktober med singeln "Unforgivable Sinner", som blev en listetta i Norge. Den nådde första plats i Norge och listnoterades även i Sverige, Tyskland, #8 SWE, #10 FRA, #18 UK, #45 SUI- sålde 3 miljoner exemplar jorden runt) [a b c d e] Rockipedia-Marlin; ^ [a b] Ives, Brian ( ). Vår dynamiske klode · Hva er et jordskjelv · Styrke · Seismologi · Jordskjelv i Norge M= BALTICS-BELARUS-NW RUSSIA REG.
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