The European migrant crisis [n 2] or European refugee crisis [n 3] is a term given to a period beginning in  when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union EU from across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.
It is part of a pattern of increased immigration to Europe from other continents which began in the midth century and which has encountered resistance in many European countries. Immigrants from outside Europe include asylum seekers and economic migrants.
The term "immigrant" is used by the European Commission to describe a person from a non-EU country establishing his or her usual residence in the territory of an EU country for a period that is, or is expected to be, at least twelve months. Most of the migrants came from Muslim-majority countries in regions south and east of Europe, including the Greater Middle East and Africa.
According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugeesthe top three nationalities of entrants of the over one million Mediterranean Sea arrivals between January and March were Syrian Though the migrant crisis is mostly discussed in Europe, the top ten countries with the most refugees are Middle Eastern and African countries. JordanTurkeyand Pakistan are the top three biggest migrant destinations, while LebanonIranEthiopiaKenyaUgandathe Democratic Republic of Congoand Chad are the rest of the countries in the top 10 of the list.
Six out of the top ten countries with the most refugees are Muslim-majority countries. Between andaround 1. Amid an upsurge in the number of sea arrivals in Italy from Libya inseveral European Union governments refused to fund the Italian-run rescue option Operation Mare Nostrumwhich was replaced by Frontex 's Operation Triton in November In the first six months ofGreece overtook Italy in the number of arrivals, becoming in the summer of the starting point of a flow of refugees and migrants moving through Balkan countries to Northern European countries, mainly Germany and Sweden.
Already in the European Commission explored in a study the financial, political and legal implications a relocation of migrants in Europe. Since Aprilthe EU has struggled to cope with the crisis, increasing funding "Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod" border patrol operations only in the Mediterranean, devising plans to fight migrant smuggling through initiatives such as the Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod Operation Sophia and proposing a new quota system both to relocate asylum seekers among EU states for processing of refugee claims to alleviate the burden on countries on the
Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod borders of the Union and to resettle asylum seekers who have been determined to be genuine refugees.
Individual countries have at times re-introduced border Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod within the Schengen Area and rifts have emerged between countries willing to allow entry of asylum seekers for processing of refugee claims and other countries trying to discourage their entry. According to EurostatEU member states received over 1. Four states Germany, Hungary, Sweden and Austria received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications inwith Hungary, Sweden and Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita.
In the Schengen Agreement of 14 June26 European countries 22 of the 28 European Union member states, plus four European Free Trade Association states joined together to form an area where border checks on internal Schengen borders i. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for "public policy or national security" reasons.
The Dublin regulation determines the EU member state responsible to examine an asylum application to prevent asylum applicants in the EU from " asylum shopping ", where applicants send their applications for asylum to numerous EU member states to the best "deal" instead of just having "safety countries",  or "asylum orbiting", where no member state takes responsibility for an asylum seeker.
By default when no family reasons or humanitarian grounds are presentthe first member state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the asylum seeker then Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod to another member state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered. This has led many to criticise the Dublin rules for placing too much responsibility for asylum seekers on member states on the EU's external borders like Italy, Greece and Hungaryinstead of devising a burden-sharing system among EU states.
A briefing by the European Parliament explained that the Dublin Agreement was only designed to assign responsibility, not effectively share responsibility. The proposal would introduce a "centralized automated system" to record the number of asylum applications across the EU,
Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod "national interfaces" within each of the Member States.
Article 26 of the Schengen Convention  says that carriers which transport people into the Schengen area shall if they transport people who are refused entry into the Schengen Area, be responsible to pay for the return of the refused people, and pay penalties. The laws on migrant smuggling ban helping migrants to pass any national border if the migrants are without a visa or other permission to enter.
This has caused many airlines to check for visas and refuse passage to migrants without visas, including through international flights inside the Schengen Area.
After being refused air passage, many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. According to a study carried out for the European Parliament, "penalties for carriers, who Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod some of the control duties of the European police services, either block asylum-seekers far from Europe's borders or force them to pay more and take greater risks to travel illegally".
By comparison, the foreign-born population is 7. Prior tothe number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in,andIn it reachedNo European state was among the top ten refugee-hosting countries in the world.
Prior tothe number of illegal border crossings detected by Frontex at the external borders of the EU peaked inwithtotal sea and land combined. According to the UNHCRthe number of forcibly displaced Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod worldwide during the refugee crisis reached The rest were persons displaced within their own countries internally displaced persons.
Among them, Syrian refugees became the largest refugee group in 3. Six of the ten largest countries of origin of refugees were African: Between andlarge numbers of migrants from the Middle East and Africa crossed between Turkey and Greece, leading Greece and the European Border Protection agency Frontex to upgrade border controls.
InBerlusconi 's government in Italy and Gaddafi 's government in Libya signed a treaty including cooperation between the two countries in order to stop irregular migration from Libya to Italy. This led to a policy of forcibly returning to Libya boat Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod intercepted Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod the Italian coast guard at sea. Sinceand particularly sinceinstability and the Second Civil War in Libya have made departures from the north-African country to Italy easier, with no central authority controlling Libya's ports and dealing with European countries and migrant smuggling networks flourishing.
The war could also have forced to leave many African immigrants residing in Libya, which used to be itself a destination country for migrants looking for better jobs. The Frontex operation is called Operation Triton.
The "European Migrant Crisis", refers to an enormous and unprecedented wave both of refugees from the Syriaa flow that was immediately joined by a far larger number of economic migrants from the Near East and Africa. Refugees are people forced to flee their country of origin because of persecution, war, or violence.
Of these 65,, Even though most Syrian refugees were hosted by neighboring countries such
Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod TurkeyLebanon and Jordanthe number of asylum applications lodged by Syrian refugees in Europe steadily increased between — South Sudan, Afghanistan, and Syria.
As of April15, refugees have successfully arrived to the shores of Europe via sea within the first few months of the year alone.
There was an estimated that have died in this year alone. Inthere was a total of 1. Since then, the influx has steadily decreased but is ongoing nonetheless. The greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria.
Their migration stems from severe socio-political oppression under President Bashar al-Assad. Civil war ensued with clashes between pro and anti-government groups. Anti-government forces were supported by external governments including US and UK. President Assad responded with force and consequently, more protests were triggered nationwide against the Assad regime.
By Julyhundreds of thousands of people were protesting against President Assad. Early insurgency was put into Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod to mitigate these uprisings—however, these measures were met with more unrest.
By MayPresent gav lagre forsorjningsstod of people have already fled the country and the first refugee camps opened in Turkey. Just a year later, in Marchthe number of Syrian refugees reached 1, Afghan refugees comprise the second-largest refugee population in the world.
Most of these refugees have fled the region due to war and persecution. The majority have resettled in Pakistan and Iran, but it is becoming Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod common to migrate further west to the European Union. Afghanistan has faced nearly 40 years of conflict dating back to the Soviet invasion in Since then, the nation has faced fluctuating levels of civil war amidst unending unrest.
The increase in refugee numbers has been credited primarily to the Taliban presence within Afghanistan. Their retreat inled to nearly 6 million Afghan refugees returning to their homeland.
However, after civil unrest and fighting alongside the Taliban's returnnearly 2. Increasing numbers, though, have committed to the strenuous migration to Turkey and the European Union. For long, economic migration has been a global issue.
These migrants are termed " migrant workers " by the United Nations. Inaccording to
Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod daily, La Stampaofficials from Europol conducted an investigation into the trafficking of fake documents for ISIL. They have identified fake Syrian passports in the refugee camps in Greece that were destined to supposed members of ISISin order to avoid Greek government controls and make their way to other parts of Europe.
Also, the chief of Europol said that a new task force of counter terrorism officers will Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod deployed to the Greek islands alongside Greek border guards in order to help Greece stop a "strategic" level campaign by Islamic State to infiltrate terrorists into Europe.
The reports by Quilliamindicate that an estimated 88, unaccompanied children—who are reported as missing—are at risk of radicalization by the Islamic State. According to the International Organization for Migration IOMup to 3, people died or disappeared in in the Mediterranean while trying to migrate to Europe.
In, migrants irregularly entered the European Union, mainly following the Central Mediterranean, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Balkan routes. Half of them had come from Syria, Eritrea and Afghanistan. Ina shift took place, with Greece overtaking Italy as the primary point of arrival and surpassing in the first six months of the numbers for the whole of As of 17 Aprilthe total number of migrants reaching the Italian coasts was 21, since 1 Januarywith a decrease during the month of March due to bad weather conditions, and a surge since 10 April, bringing the total number of arrivals in line with the number recorded in the same period in However, the death toll in the first four months of was 96, compared with in the same period in ; this number excluded the victims of the shipwrecks on 13 and 19 April.
In early Augustthe United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees said thatmigrants had arrived in Europe by sea so far in, in Greece and 98, in Italy.
The vast majority arrived by sea in Greece; Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod, arrived by sea in Italy, with a slight drop fromin IOM estimated that a total of 3, migrants and refugees lost their lives in the Mediterranean in — over more than in — of whom 2, in the Central Mediterranean and in the Aegean sea. In January and Februaryovermigrants landed in Greece, compared to about 4, in the same period of Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis continued to account for the largest share of the migrants arriving in Greece.
Meanwhile, due to improved weather conditions, the number of mainly African migrants crossing the sea to Italy doubled between February and March, reaching nearly 9, in Present gav lagre forsorjningsstodcompared to 2, in March The mass influx of migrants into Europe was not seen favorably in many European Union countries.
From that point on, the numbers of refugees entering Greece decreased. In Februarythe last full month before the deal, 57, migrants arrived in Greece via the sea; from that point on, discounting March, the highest number of migrants reaching Greece via the sea was 3, in April.
From March to October, migrants have arrived in Italy via the sea, which averages out to roughly 20, migrants per month.
Data released by the International Organization of Migration IOM for the third quarter of recordedtotal arrivals to Europe, of whichwere by sea. This is less than half the total recorded by the end of September The greatest decrease Present gav lagre forsorjningsstod influx was noted on the Eastern Mediterranean route.
Further, while also noted lower number of migrant arrival inthere was a significant jump in the number of migrants reaching Spain, with over 16, having arrived in the country. Like Spain, the island-nation of Cyprus registered approximately an 8-fold increase in the number of migrants arriving last year and this year. 6 Swedish statutes in translation, ecostorefront.info.
as seenin its present condition befogenhet . at large, free. försörjningsstöd. Mar 31, who himself has been linked to the trade, and a proclamation by Environment Minister Say Sam Al that large-scale logging had stopped. The European migrant crisis or European refugee crisis is a term given to a period beginning in The large-scale migration of people from Africa to Europe is considered a long-term consequence of European colonialism. By default ( when no family reasons or humanitarian grounds are present), the first member state.
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