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Partnerskapet mellan EU och Afrika om infrastruktur. Att knyta samman Afrika: De afrikanska regeringarna och utvecklingspartnerna minskade kraftigt den andel av resurserna som anslogs till infrastruktur under talet.

Dessa kunskaper kommer att berika dialogen mellan AU och EU. Europeiska gemenskapen och EU: Regionala och nationella medel: Europeiska kommissionen kommer att leda samordningen av EU: Dessa kommer att omfatta bland annat.

Sectoral overview, Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap and maps of the trans-African transport corridors, the continental electricity interconnections and river basins and ICT networks. This annex gives a brief overview of each sector - transport, energy, water and ICT. It also outlines the basis for a dialogue between the EU and the AU for moving the Partnership forward and delivering what Africa expects from its infrastructure and services. To facilitate the dialogue between stakeholders, maps of continental and regional transport, energy and ICT networks and of river basins Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap included.

To guide the decision-making process on setting priorities for EU operations within the EU-Africa Partnership, a two-stage process is summarised below. The process is adapted from the methodology used for extending the trans-European networks. The first stage is to identify the major trans-African corridors and networks connecting countries, which are most relevant to international exchanges and traffic and to strengthening regional integration and continental cohesion.

Various criteria will be jointly agreed under two main categories — institutional and functional. The second stage is to prioritise projects on the selected trans-African corridors and networks. This process will cover a Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap project appraisal, which will include, inter alia:. These analyses will take account of the ways in which projects contribute to economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, improved safety and security, etc.

Partnership operations to improve infrastructure along trans-African corridors and networks alone are not enough. Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap measures include, inter alia, harmonisation of transit transport and trade regulations and procedures, technical and administrative interoperability, implementation of new technologies, such as traffic management and electricity Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap systems, "Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap" measures to improve safety and security.

The EU operations will include a balance of physical investment and facilitation measures. Physical links in Africa fall well short of expectations and the infrastructure and services network remains under-developed. Roads linking sub-regions are modest and road conditions vary from region to region, and within regions and countries.

Sustaining these road conditions demands more revenue for maintenance. The increasing number of semi-autonomous road agencies is encouraging and makes increasing government and donor investments more sustainable. Such changes are leading to increased private sector involvement in roads. Progress over the past 10 years has been commendable, particularly given the fragile economy of many African countries. Governments must, however, redouble their efforts to increase their network maintenance.

Road maintenance remains a major problem for many African road agencies. Deferred maintenance has resulted in the loss of one third of the capital invested in the SSA road network. Maintenance budgets also remain an easy target for governments seeking savings; these are usually false economies. Deteriorating road conditions impose extra costs on road users in the form of increased vehicle operating costs or higher freight tariffs and passenger fares in the case of commercial operations.

The EU has developed a sectoral approach[10] to tackle the issue of road maintenance. Stakeholders are increasingly involved in prioritising road maintenance in country poverty reduction strategies and sit on the boards of road funds and road agencies.

This means defining clear responsibilities between the many road organisations, introducing effective management information, accounting and auditing systems, using the private sector for service and works delivery and paying professionals adequately. One effective way to address all these issues is to create autonomous road agencies outside the civil service. Shipping is served by some 60 major ports with facilities ranging from conventional berths to container, oil and bulk cargo see the map of the trans-African transport corridors.

Many ports struggle to offer competitive services due to inadequate equipment and complex regulations.

Globale verktøy

Similary, fishing ports, which could play a major role in the economic development Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap coastal countries, very often have inadequate facilities and services for handling local and foreign vessels and infrastructure for the storage and processing of fish products. Where the private sector is involved in concessions for container terminals and port management, port services are becoming more efficient, e.

Africa is endowed with many lakes and rivers, yet few countries integrate inland waterway transport into a regional system. Railway coverage is sparse and where it exists density is low at 3 kilometres per 1 square kilometres see the map of African railways. No regional or continental African railways network exists. Railways are expensive to construct and equip, require a higher degree of management skills and must be highly used if they are to be financially viable.

Railway services are slowly being concessioned to the private sector. This is a long process involving a lengthy lead time to financial closure. It also demands considerable restructuring of the railway corporations, involving retrenchment with its consequent negative social impact. Returns to the concessionaire are only gradually emerging and should be considered a medium- and long-term prospect. SADC is the most integrated region. Full implementation of the Decision is hampered by poor competition rules and protectionist measures for national airlines.

Similarly, efficient air services are hindered by limited investment in airport infrastructure, which often needs modernisation if it is to meet international safety and security standards. Overall transport infrastructure quality is slowly improving but is not always matched by simplification and harmonisation of operational issues.

These include cumbersome customs and administrative procedures, illegal roadblocks, conflicting regional trade arrangements, etc. Reducing the cost and improving the quality of transport services is central to the transport-related part of EU development policy. This means removing infrastructure and non-physical barriers Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap free movement of goods, services and people, improving maintenance of transport assets, etc.

And, complementary investment in communciations infastructure will lead to a more efficient flow of transit traffic along corridors and regional networks. EU programmes support these objectives Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap match the focus on interconnectivity at regional and continental level.

The trans-African corridors and the regional road network linking the corridors to country networks are shown on the map below. It is mainly based on work carried out by the African Development Bank in coordination with the RECs and includes information received from other donors.

There is also an extensive network of regional roads linking capitals, production areas, etc. Further analysis is required to establish the condition of this regional network and to prioritise its investment needs. The Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap main trans-African corridors are:.

The Nouackchott—Lagos corridor is approximately 4 km long and crosses all twelve coastal countries between Mauritania and Nigeria. It provides the most direct road connection between the capitals of the countries.

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The Khartoum—Djibouti corridor is approximately 1 km long and links Sudan and Ethiopia to the port of Djibouti. Road conditions vary from good to fair, except for two stretches of approximately km in Djibouti and Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap that are in poor condition. The Lagos—Mombasa corridor is approximately 6 km long and connects the ports of West Africa Nigeria and Cameroon and East Africa Mombasaproviding the landlocked Central African countries with access to the coast.

The Cairo—Gaborone corridor is the major trans-African corridor, approximately 8 km long. The Beira-Lobito corridor is approximately 3 km long and connects the port of Beira with Harare and continues to Lusaka. It links four countries: Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Angola. Road conditions vary, with about km, especially in Tanzania, in poor Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap.


The map does not show the well-developed corridors in South Africa nor the corridors linking South Africa to its neighbours, e.

For North Africa, which has a better developed network, the map shows only the Cairo-Agadir corridor. In Africa access to modern energy services remains very low. This inhibits job creation, industrial investment and entrepreneurial development, and impedes production of competitive goods and services.

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Wider use of modern, sustainable and affordable energy services will improve the efficiency of health and education services, reduce deforestation and ease the daily burden that women bear in Africa. Most fossil fuel is exported.

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The rising world market price of oil has a marked negative impact on the GDP of oil-importing countries, particularly the LDCs. Increased national and cross-border energy cooperation and trade is essential to improve reliability, affordability and access. It is acknowledged that the traditional approach of limiting energy planning and service provision to nation states has a negative effect on development of the energy sector in Africa.

Nation-based planning is sub-optimal in several respects: Steps are being taken to integrate regional energy systems. Progress is being made on improving power distribution through regional power pools, interconnected electricity grids and plans for regional power development. The Southern African and West African Power Pools are increasing the transit capacity for electricity interchange between the countries concerned.

Central and East Africa have established their power pools. These are just the first steps, and much more needs to be done. Similarly, the RECs are promoting cooperation on the development of gas and hydropower resources. Some cross-border schemes already exist, for example, the Kariba South power station between Zambia and Zimbabwe and the Ruzizi hydroelectric station between Burundi, the DRC and Rwanda.

Other hydropower generating facilities have bilateral agreements that play a key role in cross-border trade in electricity. At the same time individual countries are continuing to develop renewable energy sources for decentralised generation of electricity, which can be suitable solutions for increasing access in rural areas.

Other priorities include the international promotion of the rational use of energy and renewable energy, which requires dialogue with between producer, and consumer countries. Interconnectivity would help Europe to Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap its sources of supply, while upgraded and new infrastructure would improve the security of energy supplies. Within the context of the Partnership, concrete measures are needed to develop energy partnerships with producer and transit countries.

The Partnership could also improve the development of energy and transport facilities especially in ports of producer countries that allows more efficient use of their resources and attracts foreign investment.

The Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap programme could provide institutional support for improving access to sustainable energy services and actions aimed at improving energy security, Ud forutsatter eu medlemskap. It will guide the dialogue to identify priority action and the financial set-up.

The power pools include national utilities of member countries that are responsible for optimising use of regional energy resources and country-to-country support during an energy crisis. the largest active manager in the UK and second largest in Europe.* Our worldwide footprint brings us closer to our clients and the markets in which we. Dette forutsetter imidlertid at EU-medlem, noe som virker lite sannsynlig at man vil kravene EU la frem og det britene var villige til å betale.

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. Mens demokrati forutsetter representasjon og deltakelse, forutsetter diplomati hemmelighold, diplomatenes hegemoni Energi - vedlegg til Norge og EU: Medlemskap, EØS eller "sveitsisk løsning". Geopolitical Implications of US Energy Independence.

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