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The aim of this study was to assess trends and inequalities in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in relation to large-scale macroeconomic changes in Data on 22, individuals in the age group were retrieved from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys
Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget,and Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates of past month dental visits were calculated for each study year, stratified by gender, age group, ethnicity, educational level and economic activity.
Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effect of study year and socioeconomic status on dental visits. Inthe prevalence of dental visits increased by 5. In both countries the prevalence of dental care utilization had increased slightly byalthough the increase was statistically insignificant. Results from a logistic regression analysis showed that these differences between study years were not explained by differences in socioeconomic status or oral health conditions.
In European Union countries with lower national wealth, the use of dental services is sensitive to macroeconomic changes regardless of the extent of public coverage, at the same time, higher public coverage may not relate to lower inequalities in dental care use.
Background Efforts to establish the baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals SDGs highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by To fully deliver on the SDG aim of "leaving no one behind", it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study GBDwe measured progress on 41 of 52 health -related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for countries and territories for the periodprojected indicators toand analysed global attainment.
Methods We measured progress on 41 health-related S DG indicators from toan increase of four indicators since GBD new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]. We
Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators.
We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index SDI quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries.
To construct the health related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale ofwith 0 as the 2. To generate projections throughwe used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from to to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends.
Using global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from to to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from to We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent global average value and percentage change from to for each indicator.
Findings The global median health-related SDG index in was SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease NCD mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have higher health-related SDG index in than inwhile country-level probabilities of attainment by varied widely by indicator.
Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for but showed some probability of attaimnent by For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past.
Interpretation The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health -related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health -related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence -related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains curative interventions in the case of NCDs towards multisectoral, prevention -oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims.
Notably, several targets, if they are to be met bydemand a pace of progress that no country has Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the S DGs.
What is clear is that our actions or inaction today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget to leaving no one behind by Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Studywe generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable and disability-adjusted life-years DALYs for locations from tofor both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.
Using data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcoholand alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs.
We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs inaccounting for 2.
Among the population aged years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally inwith 3. For the population aged years, female attributable DALYs were 2. The
Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis 1. For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a
Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths inconstituting Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss.
We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero.
These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption. Bureaucracy and Society in Transition. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Transition into modernity takes very different roads, depending on thesequencing of bureaucracy and democratic regime. This is demonstrated bycomparing Sweden and Greece. At an early stage of the long-term modernisationof Swedish society, due to early penetration of the internal territory andbefore the extension of suffrage and political modernisation, a number ofstate organisations were established at the interstices between state and society,creating direct relations between the state and society.
Such organisations functionedas social mechanisms that elucidated society making it legible and thusstrengthened the infrastructural capacity of the state. In Greece, where thestate was built after political modernisation, the establishment of similarorganisations proved Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget be more difficult.
Although there is evidence thatsimilar Swedish practices were known in Greece to be possible paths, theywere not chosen. The establishment of a land registry system, for instance,was discussed in the decades prior to the land reform. On other issues,such choices could not be materialised given opposition or political countermobilisationto abolish the reforms after they were approved by parliament. These reform efforts were rather short-lived or countered by new reforms andexemptions, creating an ambiguous labyrinth of regulations of statesocietyrelations and a state without the capacity to intervene in society and implementlogistically political decisions throughout the realm.
On the whole, thestate remained a distant entity, mostly a distrusted one, and relations between the state and society were mediated by parties and by social and kinshipbasednetworks. Law and Zakharov examine the formation and legacy of Russian racialisation and anti-Roma racism in a number of states including Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania. They then examine racialisation in a variety of post-Soviet regimes including the Baltic states, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and the Southern Caucasus.
Finally, they confirm the need to recognise polyracism, and give a less one-sided account of the process of racial Europeanisation which privileges Western Europe and denies the agency of Eastern European states in this process. Nonprofit organizations in Russia are introducing for-profit activities as a means of gaining autonomy from external donors, and as instruments of strategic planning and sustainable development.
This study focuses on organizations that work with welfare provision and explores how they reconcile entrepreneurial activities with their social mission. More specifically, we interrogate how two institutional logics, business and nonprofit, are defined and reconciled in organizational identities, structures and hierarchies. They mimic a business approach in strategic planning and meticulous reporting, but subordinate profit-seeking to social mission by integrating entrepreneurial activities into already existing organizational structures, or by separating them into independent entities.
Ethnic hierarchies and non representation.
Party candidates with migration background in the general election of This paper analyses the extent to which individuals with migration background were appointed and elected into different levels of public decision-making bodies in the latest Swedish general election The results demonstrate that: From chatter to organized networks.
How think tanks work to enrol othersThink tanks, both inside and outside the Swedish context, appear as something of a conundrum.
Definitions and conceptual understandings of what think tanks actually do have not been adequately developed. One of the most urgent and unanswered questions regards how we understand the ability of think tanks to get other actors in the political landscape to use their ideas? Drawing on insights from 13 think thanks in Stockholm, the intention of this paper is to provide an empirically based and theoretically informed answer to this question. These activities come across as intangible with uncertain outcomes but cannot be seen as random attempts to bridge think tankers and policy actors, but as decided actions designed to make other actors use their ideas in the future.
The political landscape in Sweden has undergone considerable changes in recent decades The "Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget" of political parties in the Swedish parliament has increased from five to eight, and the socio-economic issues of the traditional political right—left scale has been challenged by socio-cultural issues relating to lifestyle and identity.
Notably, the notion of Swedish exceptionalism and the particularities of its welfare state is lingering despite findings pointing in the opposite direction e. The corporatist model has been challenged by new forms of political authority, participation and representation. New political actors, such as social movements and civil society actors, think tanks and policy professionals, are becoming increasingly engaged in political processes. The long-term trend suggests that traditionally marginalised groups, such as the young, women and groups of migrant background, are represented in decision-making forums to a higher degree than before.
Yet, current conditions need further analysis. Change and continuity in the political landscape. Politico-sociological perspectives on the general election in Sweden The political landscape in Sweden has undergone considerable changes in recent decades.
The number of political parties in the Swedish parliament has increased from five to eight, and the socio-economic issues of the traditional political right—left scale has been challenged by socio-cultural issues relating to lifestyle and identity. Notably, the radical right has had significant electoral success in Sweden based on an ethno-nationalist and anti-immigrant rhetoric.
The corporatist model has increasingly been challenged by new forms of political authority, participation and representation. Yet, new political actors such as social movements and civil society actors, think tanks and policy professionals, are becoming increasingly engaged in the political processes.
Moreover, traditionally marginalised groups including the young, women and individuals of Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget background are represented to a higher degree in political bodies than before.
This article addresses domestic civil society organisations CSOs and their multilevel strategies for gaining political influence in the European Union. Factors like Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget of organisation, organisational resources, level of activity and perceived relevance of national and EU political levels are combined.
The article shows that CSOs tend to choose a combination of routes and that most of them also participate at the national level when trying to influence EU policy. The article furthermore finds that domestic CSOs seek to influence EU policies above all when they organise around issues that face potential conflicts between national and EU policies, illustrating the analytical significance of how CSOs perceive different political levels.
Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency never, seldom, sometimes, often of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults. able seaman: matros abled: möjlig gjord abloom: i blom ablution: tvätta sig spröd, skör broach: föra på tal broad: bred, utsträckt broad−shouldered: axelbred hydda cotton: tråd.
räkna count upon: påräkna English−swedish Dictionary county: grevskap. land country council: landsting country people: allmoge. löpande; detta såsom ett självklart inslag i den budgetprocess som skall fastställa själva en viktig uppgift i denna utvärdering; deras "självutvärdering" skall redovisa del av den ekonometriska bakgrundsrapporten råder enligt min upp - fattning inget inom landsting, är innehållet i Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget inte så fullständig som jag.
The CEMS program consists of mandatory elements such
Skor trad rader rationalisering inom landstinget an initial one-week block seminar, traditional courses in international business, a business project.
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We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD.
Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. Special attention is paid to the possible transitions from current job into other positions and arenas. Using data from 1, respondents collected during the Moscow Health Survey we examined the association between family relations and health outcomes. Proportional hazard models were used to examine the relation between pollinosis and mortality.
Loneliness is associated with suicidal behavior in the general adult population.
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